The Congress resolved the Polish-Saxon crisis in Vienna and the question of Greek independence in Laibach. Three major European congresses were held. The Congress of Aachen (1818) ended the occupation of France. The others made no sense, with each nation realizing that the congresses were not to its advantage, as disputes were resolved with diminishing efficiency. Secondly, the Viennese order was built on the principle that the great powers – a group in which France has regained its traditional place – would assume a common responsibility for the overall peace and stability of Europe. The four victorious great powers had already agreed on this principle in various instruments before the Congress of Vienna, the most important being the Treaty of Chaumont of 1 March 1814 (63 CTS 83). This “principle of great power” also determined the organization and functioning of the Congress itself. Although more than 200 delegations were present, the main negotiations and decisions took place in the committees of the Five (Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia and France) and the Eight (including Spain, Sweden and Portugal), with the other powers relegated to the role of lobbyists for their own interests. As the French negotiator Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (1754-1838) said, “Vienna was the Congress that was not a congress.” However, the Final Act lacked a provision for the future implementation of the great power principle, in addition to the fact that the eight great powers were bound to all their provisions and were therefore all the guarantors of the territorial and legal order of Europe, as defined in the file. The Second Peace of Paris, of November 20, 1815, remedied it. Article 6 of the bilateral agreement between Great Britain and Austria provided for the convening of conferences between the major powers to discuss issues of common interest and peacekeeping in Europe.

By incorporating it into the identical peace treaty, it committed all its signatories. Even the return of Napoleon from Elba and the outbreak of a new war did not divert Congress from its premonitory agenda. The Congress was not suspended and a new peace treaty was not concluded in Vienna. After Napoleon`s defeat at Waterloo and the second restoration of the Bourbons to the throne of France, a new series of peace treaties was concluded between France and each of the four great powers of the coalition as part of the Second Peace of Paris of 20 November 1815 (65 STCs 251). Many other powers then joined the peace. At previous peace conferences, the main task was to agree on the conditions for ending the war and restoring peace. While this impinsed discussions about the future order of Europe, the main interest was to settle the claims that were at the origin of the war and the emphasis was therefore largely retrograde. In the case of Vienna, peace had already been reached between France and its main allies before the conference. Peace had been formally achieved by the First Peace of Paris of 30 May 1814. That peace had taken the traditional form of a number of bilateral peace agreements between the various war-torn parties; in this case, it was six peace agreements between France, on the one hand, and Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia, Sweden and Portugal, on the other.