In other words, the law defines the country that will process the claim of a person seeking asylum under the Geneva Convention. Signatories to the Dublin Regulation include the 28 EU Member States, as well as Liechtenstein, Norway, Iceland and Switzerland. The regulation is also referred to as Dublin III (EC 604/2013), which replaces the old EU DUBLIN REGULATIONS (Dublin II) (343/2003) and the Dublin Convention, which was signed in 1990. As soon as a migrant seeks asylum, officials collect his basic information and take fingerprints. When defining asylum jurisdiction, officials ask for several criteria. These include, in hierarchical order, family considerations, the recent possession of a visa or residence permit issued by a Member State and the question of whether an applicant has entered the EU legally or illegally. In most cases, the applicant also attends a personal interview with officials who process asylum documents to explain why they are in danger in their country of origin and seeking protection in Europe. The purpose of the regulation is to determine the country responsible for processing an asylum seeker`s claim. As a general rule, it is the first EU member state that migrants rely on. The regulation also aims to ensure that all applications in an EU country are subject to fair review. The Dublin system assumes that asylum legislation and practices are at the same level in all EU countries and that these claimants enjoy the same protection status throughout the EU. However, asylum practices vary from country to country.

Member States at EU borders have also complained that the system places the full burden on them on migrants, who are usually the first point for refugees fleeing to Europe. Another problem with the Dublin system is that asylum seekers often have to wait a certain amount of time without knowing whether their application will be accepted. Meanwhile, they are forced to live in detention centres and be separated from their families. In some cases, their appeals are never heard, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). More information on asylum applications and the Dublin system in Germany is available on the website of the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees. For more information on asylum procedures in the European Union, click here. Sources: ec.europa.eu, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Around 23 June 2015, during the European refugee and migrant crisis, Hungary found itself overburdened with asylum applications after taking in 60,000 «illegal immigrants» this year and announced that it would no longer accept asylum seekers who had crossed borders and were detained there, as they were required to do under the Dublin Regulation for unspecified technical reasons, and that they would virtually withdraw from this Dublin regulation. [27] On 24 August 2015, Germany therefore decided to use the «sovereignty clause» to process Syrian asylum applications, which it would not have jurisdiction over under the criteria of the regulation.

[28] On 2 September 2015, the Czech Republic also decided to offer Syrian refugees who had already applied for asylum in other EU countries and had arrived in the country to process their applications in the Czech Republic (i).