Recent developments in the international investment regime: a review of Phase 2 reforms There are many examples of PTIAs. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is remarkable. While NAFTA addresses a very wide range of issues, including cross-border trade between Canada, Mexico and the United States, Chapter 11 of the agreement contains detailed foreign investment provisions similar to those contained in the ILO. [6] Other bilateral examples of PTIA are available in the JAPAN-Singapore EPA[7], in the Republic of Korea-Chile Free Trade Agreement[8] and in the U.S.-Australia Free Trade Agreement. [9] This work includes analysing the latest trends and key emerging themes of the IIA, strengthening the capacity of developing countries to negotiate and implement investment contracts that can foster sustainable investment, and establishing a platform for universal, inclusive and transparent stakeholder engagement on these issues. International tax treaties focus on the elimination of double taxation, but can, at the same time, treat relatives as the prevention of tax evasion. Another important trend is the multiplicity of agreements. [14] As a result, the developing international CEW system has been likened to a metaphor for a “spaghetti shell.” According to UNCTAD, the system is universal, as virtually every country has signed at least one I2. At the same time, it can be considered atomized because of the large number of individual agreements that currently exist. The system is complex, with the signing of agreements at all levels (bilateral, sectoral, regional, etc.). It is also complex, as an increasing number of I2As contain provisions on subjects traditionally far removed from investment, such as trade, intellectual property, workers` rights and environmental protection. The system is also dynamic, as its main features are currently evolving rapidly.

[15] [16] For example, new standards tend to include provisions that deal more often with issues such as public health, safety, national security or the environment, in order to better address public policy concerns. Finally, beyond AI, there are other international laws that are relevant to countries` national investment frameworks, including international customary law, UN instruments and the WTO agreement (for example. B TRIMS). Countries enter into enterprise agreements primarily to protect and indirectly encourage foreign investment and, increasingly, to liberalize these investments. The IIAs provide companies and individuals of contracting parties with enhanced security and security under international law when they invest or set up a business in other countries parties to the agreement. Reducing the investment risk associated with an IGE is designed to encourage businesses and individuals to invest in the country that AI has concluded. In this context, it is important to allow foreign investors to settle disputes with the host country through international arbitrations and not just through the host country`s national courts. Unlike investment protection, investment promotion provisions are rarely formally included in AI and, if so, these provisions generally remain non-binding. Nevertheless, improving the formal protection offered to foreign investors through an I2 should encourage and encourage cross-border investment.

The benefits of higher foreign investment are significant for developing countries that wish to use foreign investment and IDAMIT as instruments to improve their economic development. BIPs and some ATPs also contain a provision for investor-state dispute settlement. As a general rule, this gives investors the right to file a case with an international arbitration tribunal in the event of a dispute with the host country. The common places subject to arbitration proceedings are the International Centre for Settlement